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Шаблон:Infobox England place with map

Эйлсбери (англ. Aylesbury) - главный город графства Бакингемшир в south central Англия. It has a population in the 2001 census of 65,173 and is part of the London commuter belt.



The town name is Anglo-Saxon, though excavations in the town centre in the early 1990s found an Iron Age hillfort dating from around 650BC. The town is sited on an outcrop of Portlandian limestone which accounts for its prominent position in the surrounding landscape, which is largely clay. Aylesbury was a major market town in Anglo-Saxon times, famous in addition as the burial place of Saint Osyth, whose shrine attracted pilgrims. The Early English parish church of St. Mary (with many later additions) is built over remains of the Saxon crypt. At the Conquest, the king took the manor of Aylesbury for himself, and it is listed as a royal manor in the Domesday Book, 1086.

In 1450 a religious institution called the Guild of St Mary was founded in Aylesbury by John Kemp, Archbishop of York. Known popularly as the Guild of Our Lady it became a meeting place for local dignitaries and a hotbed of political intrigue. The Guild was influential in the final outcome of the Wars of the Roses. Its premises at the Chantry in Church Street, Aylesbury, are still there, though today the site is occupied mainly by almshouses.

Aylesbury was declared the county town of Buckinghamshire in 1529 by King Henry VIII: Aylesbury Manor was among the many properties belonging to Thomas Boleyn the father of the infamous Anne Boleyn and it is rumoured that the change was made by the king in order to curry favour with the holders of the manor. (Previously the county town of Buckinghamshire was Buckingham).

The town played a large part in the English Civil War when it became a stronghold for the Parliamentarian forces, like many market towns a nursing-ground of Puritan sentiment. Its proximity to Great Hampden, home of John Hampden has made of Hampden a local hero: his silhouette is on the emblem used by Aylesbury Vale District Council and his statue stands prominently in the town centre. The town's heraldic crest is the Aylesbury duck, which has been bred here since the birth of the Industrial Revolution.

The Jacobean mansion of Hartwell nearby was the residence of Louis XVIII during his exile (1810 – 1814). The town also received international publicity in the 1960s when the culprits responsible for the Great Train Robbery were tried at Aylesbury Crown Court. The robbery took place at Bridego Bridge, a railway bridge at Ledburn, about six miles from the town. The 7 July 2005 Piccadilly Line bomber Germaine Lindsay's home was in Aylesbury at the time of the bombings, though he was originally from Jamaica.

A notable institution is Aylesbury Grammar School, which was founded in 1598; other notable buildings are the King's Head Inn, which with the Fleece Inn at Bretforton is one of the few public houses in the country owned by the National Trust still run as a public house, and the Queens Park Centre, the UK's largest independent arts centre.

Chequers, the country residence of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom since 1921, is just southeast of Aylesbury.

Modern Aylesbury

The town's population has doubled since the 1960s due to new housing developments, and is now a highly prosperous town.

Aylesbury's population was expected to increase between 2003 and 2005 with a new housing estate designed to cater for 8000 people on the north side of the town, sandwiched between the A41 (Akeman Street) and the A413, and the expansion of Fairford Leys village.

Housing estates in the modern Aylesbury include: Bedgrove, Broughton, Elm Farm, Elmhurst, Fairford Leys, Haydon Hill, Meadowcroft, Prebendal Farm, Quarrendon, Southcourt, Stoke Grange, Walton Court and Watermead.

The local newspaper is The Bucks Herald. The local radio station is Mix 96.

One of the more prominent buildings in Aylesbury is the "Blue Leanie" office block, home to Halifax Bank of Scotland (HBOS). When first built it was thought to be a potential hazard to passing motorists, due to the sun reflecting off its large mirrored surface. As a result a line of trees were planted alongside the main road to prevent dazzling.

The town is served by Aylesbury railway station, which is the present terminus of passenger services from London Marylebone.


Aylesbury Town Council is the parish council for the town. In 2005, it comprised 23 councillors of which all 23 are members of the Liberal Democrat political party. The council represents the constituents only of Aylesbury town itself. Surrounding villages have their own parish councils.

The Town Council are in a process of discussions to take over responsibility for some public services from Aylesbury Vale District Council.

Trade and industry

Traditionally the town was a commercial centre with a market dating back to the Saxon period. This is because it was established on the main Akeman Street which became an established trade route linking London to the southwest. In 1180 a gaol was established in the town (it is still there though has moved locations two or three times) which only really happened in main towns across the country.

By 1477 flour was being ground in the town for surrounding parishes. By the modern period this had grown into a huge established industry: the last mill in Aylesbury was closed in the 1970s. By 1560 the manufacture of needles had become a huge industry in Aylesbury, and was the only place in the country where needles were made.

In 1672 poor children in Buckinghamshire were taught to make lace as a way to make a living. Bucks lace as it became known quickly became very sought after and production boomed as the lace was mainly made by poor women and children. The lace-making industry had died out by Victorian times, however, as new machine-made lace became preferable.

In 1764 Euclid Neale opened his clockmaking workshop in Aylesbury. In the 18th century he was one of the best clock makers in the country.

In 1814 the Aylesbury arm of the Grand Union Canal was opened bringing major industry to the town for the first time.

The railway came to Aylesbury in 1839 when the Aylesbury Railway opened from Cheddington on Robert Stephenson's London and Birmingham Railway. The Wycombe Railway arrived via Princes Risborough on 1st October 1863, and on 23rd September 1868 the Aylesbury and Buckingham Railway was opened from Verney Junction, to make an end-on junction with the Wycombe Railway. The Metropolitan Railway from Baker Street arrived via Amersham in 1892. The Aylesbury Railway closed in 1953, and there are now no regular passenger services north of Aylesbury. The other lines from London remain in service and are heavily used.

A rail scheme is proposed [1] to extend passenger services northwestwards to a new station — Aylesbury North Parkway — sited on the present freight-only line towards Quainton at the point where the line crosses the A41 near Berryfields Farm. This area is to be known as the Berryfields Major Development Area, and will include Park and Ride facilities for Aylesbury. A further expansion of rail services to Bletchley and Bedford is suggested in a consultants' report [2] written to provide regional planning guidance to Bucks County Council concerning the development of Aylesbury Vale.

By the late 19th century the printers and bookbinders Hazell, Watson and Viney and the Nestlé dairy were the two main employers in the town, employing more than half the total population.

Today the town is still a major commercial centre and the market still meets on the cobbles of the old Market Square four days a week. Nestle and Hazell, Watson and Viney have both gone, though three major industrial centres make sure the town has one of the lowest unemployment rates in the country.

Cycling Demonstration town

The town has recently won £1million funding to be one of six Cycling Demonstration town in England. This allows Buckinghamshire County Council to promote the use of cycling amongst the general public, as well as provide facilities for cyclists, such as bike lockers, bike stands as well as Tiger and Toucan road crossings.


Aylesbury is located at 51°50′00″ с. ш. 0°50′00″ з. д. (G) (51.8333, -0.8333)1.

См. также

  • HM Prison Aylesbury
  • Roald Dahl Children's Gallery


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